Actomyosin-driven force patterning controls endocytosis at the immune synapse
AbstractAn important channel of cell-to-cell communication is direct contact. The immune synapse is a paradigmatic example of such type of interaction: it forms upon engagement of antigen receptors in lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells and allows the local exchange of molecules and information. Although mechanics has been shown to play an important role in this process, how forces organize and impact on synapse function is unknown. We find that mechanical forces are spatio-temporally patterned at the immune synapse: global pulsatile myosin II-driven tangential forces are observed at the synapse periphery while localised forces generated by invadosome-like F-actin protrusions are detected at its centre. Noticeably, we observe that these force-producing actin protrusions constitute the main site of antigen extraction and endocytosis and require myosin II contractility to form. The interplay between global and local forces dictated by the organization of the actomyosin cytoskeleton therefore controls endocytosis at the immune synapse.