Emerging Therapeutic Opportunities Based on Current Knowledge of Uveal Melanoma Biology

Nom de la revue
Raquel Vivet-Noguer, Malcy Tarin, Sergio Roman-Roman, Samar Alsafadi

Uveal Melanoma (UM) is a rare and malignant intraocular tumor with dismal prognosis. Despite the efficient control of the primary tumor by radiation or surgery, up to 50% of patients subsequently develop metastasis, mainly in the liver. Once the tumor has spread from the eye, the treatment is challenging and the median survival is only nine months. UM represents an intriguing model of oncogenesis that is characterized by a relatively homogeneous histopathological architecture and a low burden of genetic alterations, in contrast to other melanomas. UM is driven by recurrent activating mutations in Gαq pathway, which are associated with a second mutation in BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1), splicing factor 3b subunit 1 (SF3B1), or eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1A X-linked (EIF1AX), occurring in an almost mutually exclusive manner. The monosomy of chromosome 3 is also a recurrent feature that is associated with high metastatic risk. These events driving UM oncogenesis have been thoroughly investigated over the last decade. However, no efficient related therapeutic strategies are yet available and the metastatic disease remains mostly incurable. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the molecular biology and the genetics of uveal melanoma and highlight the related therapeutic applications and perspectives.