Caveolin-1 protects endothelial cells from extensive expansion of transcellular tunnel by stiffening the plasma membrane

Nom de la revue
Camille Morel, Eline Lemerle, Feng-Ching Tsai, Thomas Obadia, Nishit Srivastava, Maud Marechal, Audrey Salles, Marvin Albert, Caroline Stefani, Yvonne Benito, François Vandenesch, Christophe Lamaze, Stéphane Vassilopoulos, Matthieu Piel, Patricia Bassereau, David Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Cecile Leduc, Emmanuel Lemichez

Large transcellular pores elicited by bacterial mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) exotoxins inhibiting the small RhoA GTPase compromise the endothelial barrier. Recent advances in biophysical modeling point toward membrane tension and bending rigidity as the minimal set of mechanical parameters determining the nucleation and maximal size of transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels induced by bacterial RhoA-targeting mART exotoxins. We report that cellular depletion of caveolin-1, the membrane-embedded building block of caveolae, and depletion of cavin-1, the master regulator of caveolae invaginations, increase the number of TEMs per cell. The enhanced occurrence of TEM nucleation events correlates with a reduction in cell height due to the increase in cell spreading and decrease in cell volume, which, together with the disruption of RhoA-driven F-actin meshwork, favor membrane apposition for TEM nucleation. Strikingly, caveolin-1 specifically controls the opening speed of TEMs, leading to their dramatic 5.4-fold larger widening. Consistent with the increase in TEM density and width in siCAV1 cells, we record a higher lethality in CAV1 KO mice subjected to a catalytically active mART exotoxin targeting RhoA during staphylococcal bloodstream infection. Combined theoretical modeling with independent biophysical measurements of plasma membrane bending rigidity points toward a specific contribution of caveolin-1 to membrane stiffening in addition to the role of cavin-1/caveolin-1-dependent caveolae in the control of membrane tension homeostasis.